Today, few people remember visit to AvtoVAZ Secretary General of the Central Committee of the CPSU Mikhail Gorbachev in 1986. Then he said the phrase, why would the Volga auto plant not become the legislator of the world automobile fashion? The Togliatti Auto Giant did not become. But we have an example, as a developing country can become such a legislator.
The tropical giant, located in the southern hemisphere, does not have its own brand of passenger cars. Nevertheless, he became a «fashion legislator» in the global automotive industry. Our channel revealed this secret, it turned out that this is the most interesting and unfamiliar world of world auto industry in Russia.
Indeed, there are no own brands of mass passenger cars in Brazil. Even more than half a century ago, «Brazilian Four,» is GM, Ford, Volkswagen and Fiat. And today these automakers occupy a leading position in the Brazilian automotive market. True, later companies like Honda, Toyota, Hyundai, Chrysler (Jeep) joined this «four». As well as Renault, settled in the city of Curitiba, the capital of Paraná. This city is special in our story.
But we are talking about the automotive industry and here is the time to remember such a Brazilian brand as Marcopolo. We have almost nobody know about her. But why she became a «fashion legislator» in Automa, everything is very simple.
The reason why the rapid growth of cities. Brazil also took the process of urbanization with explosive growth of the urban population. It is during this period that the transport problems of cities are greatly exacerbated. And one of the solutions lies in the field of public transportation, for mass intracity traffic.
We will be transferred to the distant 70s of the last century. The capital of Parana also grew quickly and overcame a millionth frontier (now in the city 1.7 million inhabitants). How would we have? The city, which reached a million inhabitants, would be queued for the receipt of the metro, and even this time would come to him.
But in Brazil, there were no such town-planning regulations in those years, and in power there was a military junta, which was criticized by all the progressive forces of the country. After all, the military have several other functionality, but they cannot manage complex urban systems and cannot be a priori.
And now there is an interesting turn. Parana State Governor (Member of the Military Junta, then in Brazil), appoints the prefect (mayor) of Jaima Lerner, the thirty-year-old architect-urbanist, engineer and humanitarian, which has their own, much deeper ideas about the development of the city. Here you can say the point of reference as Brazil has become the legislator mod in the world and road.
Zhaim Lerner became the founder of the new BRT transport system (Bus Rapid Transit), or metrobus. He first realized to look at the situation wider: buses need to «enter» to the city’s conditions. In particular, Lerner guessed to allocate special strips for superbwest buses, as well as ensure their advantage in motion. These bands cannot be caught up with outsiders and other transport. It is these features that uses the BRT system so far. But, of course, it includes many more related factors accelerating passenger traffic — for example, special landing stations (Lerner tubes). They consist of clotheled metal structures that do not allow them to appear on them by the passengers unpaid fare. As we have in the subway.
The new BRT / metrobus system, as very successful and effective for large cities, subsequently in the 80s, 90-, 00s, was replicated in many metropolisms of different countries: from the US to Turkey, from Mexico to Indonesia, from France to Bangladesh and China. But the greatest development of BRT got in the cities of Latin America, where, in fact, was born.
But then in the distant 70s for non-standard order of rolling stock, the largest bus studio Marcopolo (yes, then, the very thing, by which our KAMAZ licenses collects the model of the BRAVIS small capacity of BRAVIS).
The first three-section «harmonica» Torino Biarticulado came to the streets of Curitiba. It was built on the Volvo B58E average motor chassis and was produced until 1997. The giant bus held up to 220 people, despite the fact that its power unit is a 10-liter diesel engine that has developed a low power at current time — only 185 hp. Then, replaced the engine to more powerful — 286-strong. In 2000, the second generation buses appeared — already on the VOLVO chassis B10M and more spacious (270 people), but with the motor of the former model. In 2010, the cars «Third Series» started — those that became the most long in the world. Here is a more modern body, a new chassis B12M, even more powerful and eco-friendly engine (340 hp, EURO 3). And the capacity is higher — no longer 270, but all 300 passengers. The body of all metrobills of local production Marcopolo, the other company appeared later — IndusCar / Caio.
The Brazilian automobile company Marcopolo was held such an evolution, becoming the «legislator mod» in this branch of the bus construction.
In principle, the secret is simple. The three-section is based on the chassis of three cargo grades, whose plants are available in Brazil: Mercedes-Benz, Scania or Volvo. In terms of aggregates and layout, the trocpecitioners are a little different from the harmoshk buses familiar to us. Engines are the most modern, including gas, hybrid and even «alcohol» (Brazil feature); Transmission — only automatic.
By the way, we recently
And today, before Marcopolo and other Brazilian buses, there is a challenge to ecologizing rolling stock. Many Latin American cities are located in the mountains of the Andes and the problem of air pollution here is very acute. And one of the directions of solving environmental problems — gasometallization.
In the Mexican city of Pueblo (by the way, there is a Volkswagen plant, where the Jetta car is released, including Russia’s first 24 buses with engines that are working on the compressed methane engines that meet EURO-6 environmental standards. This is Brazilian Marcopolo Torino articians with huge roof gas cylinders. These «harmonica» have air conditioners and information screens in the cabin.
Today in Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan constitutes plans for the development of the metrobus / BRT. The leaders of the city and profile officials understand that the second metro branch, the construction of which began, will not be able to embrace any significant areas of the city and for a number of directions it is more efficient to start the high-speed bus system. What will she be? Just highlighted bus bands, as is done in Moscow, or individual stripes like in the cities of Brazil, Colombia or closest to us Turkey? Answer until we can give. It is very pity that such an innovative invention is not in demand in our country, and it could be an effective solution to increase the mobility of Russian citizens, which are most in the country’s population.